Kristina Hess

Principal Economist

Kristina Hess is a Principal Economist in the Advanced Economies Division of the International Economic Analysis Department. She joined the Bank in September 2012 after completing the MA Economics program at Queen’s University.


Principal Economist
International Economic Analysis
Advanced Economies Division

Bank of Canada
234 Wellington Street
Ottawa, ON, K1A 0G9


Exploring Wage Phillips Curves in Advanced Economies

Staff Discussion Paper 2019-8 Rose Cunningham, Vikram Rai, Kristina Hess
We investigate the extent to which excess supply (demand) in labour markets contributes to a lower (higher) growth rate of average nominal wages for workers. Using panel methods on data from 10 advanced economies for 1992–2018, we produce reduced-form estimates of a wage Phillips curve specification that is consistent with a New Keynesian framework.

Assessing Global Potential Output Growth: April 2019

This note presents the updated estimates of potential output growth for the global economy through 2021. Global potential output is expected to grow by 3.3 per cent per year over the projection horizon.

Drivers of Weak Wage Growth in Advanced Economies

Since the global financial crisis, advanced-economy wage growth has been generally low relative to past recoveries, especially after accounting for the evolution of labour market conditions over this period. This paper investigates a variety of potential explanations for this weakness, drawing on findings from the literature as well as analysis of recent labour market data in advanced economies.
Content Type(s): Staff Research, Staff Analytical Notes Topic(s): International topics, Labour markets JEL Code(s): E, E3, E31, F, F0, J, J3

Assessing Global Potential Output Growth: April 2018

This note presents our estimates of potential output growth for the global economy through 2020. Overall, we expect global potential output growth to remain broadly stable over the projection horizon, averaging 3.3 per cent, although there is considerable uncertainty surrounding these estimates.

Understanding the Time Variation in Exchange Rate Pass-Through to Import Prices

Staff Discussion Paper 2017-12 Rose Cunningham, Min Jae Kim, Christian Friedrich, Kristina Hess
In this paper, we analyze the presence of time variation in the pass-through from the nominal effective exchange rate to import prices for 24 advanced economies over the period 1995–2015. In line with earlier studies in the literature, we find substantial heterogeneity in the level of exchange rate pass-through across countries.

See More


Journal Publications

  • “Monetary Policy and Financial Stability: Cross-Country Evidence” (with Christian Friedrich and Rose Cunningham), Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Vol 51: 403-453, March-April 2019.
  • “International Transmission Channels of U.S. Quantitative Easing: Evidence from Canada” (with Tatjana Dahlhaus and Abeer Reza), Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Vol 50: 545-563, March-April 2018.


  • M.A. (Economics) Queen’s University (2012)
  • B.A. (Economics) University of British Columbia (2010)

Follow the Bank