Consult these brief articles explaining topics related to our core functions.



May 6, 2020

Understanding seigniorage

At the Bank of Canada, we cover the cost of day-to-day business with “seigniorage,” which means earning money from issuing bank notes.
Content Type(s): Explainers Topic(s): Bank notes
March 3, 2014

Household Spending and Debt

Highlights the value of ‘prudent’ borrowing in enhancing welfare, but also the risks of over-indebtedness for households, the economy and financial stability. Discusses trends in household debt, various debt metrics and why monetary policy is concerned with how households use borrowed funds.
Content Type(s): Explainers Topic(s): Financial stability
May 31, 2013


Defines this important economic concept, describes different measures of productivity, explains how productivity affects living standards, and summarizes the reasons behind Canada’s disappointing productivity record.
Content Type(s): Explainers Topic(s): Productivity
May 29, 2012

Output Gap

Defines this key economic indicator and explains its importance for monetary policy.
Content Type(s): Explainers Topic(s): Productivity