Chris D'Souza

Principal Economist

Chris D’Souza is a Principal Economist in the Canadian Economic Analysis (CEA) Department. His research interests include corporate finance, banking and market microstructure. Chris holds a Ph.D. in Economics from Queen’s University.


Chris D'Souza

Principal Economist
Canadian Economic Analysis
Regional Analysis

Bank of Canada
234 Wellington Street
Ottawa, ON, K1A 0G9


May 11, 2017 The Digital Economy

Digital technologies—cloud computing, the Internet of Things, advanced robotics, big data analytics, artificial intelligence and machine learning, social media, 3D printing, augmented reality, virtual reality, e-money and distributed ledgers—are transforming the way busi-nesses operate. How does this transformation compare with past industrial revolutions? How are digital technologies changing production systems across industries? Agile firms that use knowledge intensively and have high levels of both organizational and human capital appear set to realize the greatest benefits from digitalization. Finally, what are the implications for productivity, labour markets, inflation and monetary policy as we transition to the digital economy?
Content Type(s): Publications, Bank of Canada Review Article Topic(s): Firm dynamics, Monetary Policy, Productivity JEL Code(s): D, D2, D24, L, L1, L10, O, O1, O3, O33

Funding Advantage and Market Discipline in the Canadian Banking Sector

Staff Working Paper 2013-50 Mehdi Beyhaghi, Chris D'Souza, Gordon S. Roberts
We employ a comprehensive data set and a variety of methods to provide evidence on the magnitude of large banks’ funding advantage in Canada, and on the extent to which market discipline exists across different securities issued by the Canadian banks.
Content Type(s): Staff Research, Staff Working Papers Topic(s): Financial Institutions, Interest rates JEL Code(s): G, G0, G01, G2, G21, G28, G3, G32, G33

June 11, 2009 Collateral Management in the LVTS by Canadian Financial Institutions

This article examines the incentives for banks to hold various assets on their balance sheets for use as collateral when the opportunity cost of doing so can be high. Focusing on the five-year period (2002-07) that preceded the financial crisis, it examines the choices made by financial institutions among the assets that are pledged as collateral in Canada's Large Value Transfer System. This serves as a baseline for collateral-management practices during relatively normal times. The results of this study are important for policy-makers, especially the Bank of Canada, which is concerned both about the efficient functioning of fixed-income markets and about the credit risk it ultimately bears in insuring LVTS settlement. The results suggest that relative market liquidity and market-making capacity are important factors in the choice of securities pledged as collateral in the LVTS.

November 11, 2008 The Role of Dealers in Providing Interday Liquidity in the Canadian-Dollar Market

Access to information about the future direction of the exchange rate can be extremely valuable in the foreign exchange market. Evidence presented in this article suggests that Canadian dealers are more likely to provide interday liquidity to foreign, rather than Canadian, financial customers, since foreign financial flows can be more informative about future movements in the exchange rate. The author reveals a statistical relationship between the supply of liquidity provided by non-financial firms and that provided by dealing institutions across time, and across markets, and suggests that the relationship between the positions of commercial clients and market-makers, and the role played by dealers in interday liquidity provision, has been understated in the market microstructure literature.

See More


Refereed Journals

Other Research

  • "How Liquid are Canadas?"
    (with C. Gaa), 2004, Canadian Investment Review, Winter, p. 23-28.
  • "How Do Banks Respond to Capital Shocks?"
    (with A. Lai), 2004, Monetaria, 27:1 p. 33-56.


  • Ph.D, Queen's

Research Interests

  • Digitial Economy
  • Global Value Chains
  • Banking
  • Market Microstructure


Follow the Bank