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453 Results

Regulatory Requirements of Banks and Arbitrage in the Post-Crisis Federal Funds Market

Staff Working Paper 2022-48 Rodney J. Garratt, Sofia Priazhkina
This paper explains the nature of interest rates in the U.S. federal funds market after the 2007-09 financial crisis. We build a model of the over-the-counter lending market that incorporates new aspects of the financial system: abundance of liquidity, different regulatory standards for banks, and arbitrage opportunities created by limited access to the facility granting interest on excess reserves.

Stablecoins and Their Risks to Financial Stability

Staff Discussion Paper 2022-20 Cameron MacDonald, Laura Zhao
What risks could stablecoins pose to the financial system? We argue that the stabilization mechanisms of stablecoins give rise to the risk of confidence runs, which can propagate to broader cryptoasset markets and the traditional financial sector. We also argue that stablecoins can contribute to financial stability risks by facilitating the buildup of leverage and liquidity mismatch in decentralized finance. Such risks cannot be addressed by ensuring the price stability of stablecoins alone. Finally, we explore the potential implications of stablecoins for the current system of bank-intermediated credit and for monetary policy.
November 22, 2022

Tracking the financial vulnerabilities of households and the housing market

The Bank of Canada is publishing a new set of indicators of financial vulnerabilities. This will allow households, the private sector, financial authorities and governments to better understand and monitor the evolution of two key vulnerabilities in the financial system: the elevated level of household indebtedness and high house prices.

Variable-rate mortgages with fixed payments: Examining trigger rates

Staff Analytical Note 2022-19 Stephen Murchison, Maria teNyenhuis
We estimate the share of variable-rate mortgages with fixed payments that reached the so-called trigger rate—the interest rate at which mortgage payments no longer cover the principal. Amid rising interest rates, this share was close to 50% at the end of October 2022 and could potentially reach 65% in 2023.

Stagflation and Topsy-Turvy Capital Flows

Staff Working Paper 2022-46 Julien Bengui, Louphou Coulibaly
Unregulated capital flows are likely excessive during a stagflation episode, owing to a macroeconomic externality operating through the economy’s supply side. Inflows raise domestic wages and cause unwelcome upward pressure on firm costs, yet market forces likely generate such inflows. Optimal capital flow management instead requires net outflows.

Archetypes for a retail CBDC

Staff Analytical Note 2022-14 Sriram Darbha
A variety of technology designs could support retail central bank digital currency (CBDC) systems. We develop five archetypes of CBDC systems, outline their characteristics and discuss their trade-offs. This work serves as a framework to analyze and compare different designs, independent of vendor, platform and implementation.

Harnessing the benefit of state-contingent forward guidance

Staff Analytical Note 2022-13 Vivian Chu, Yang Zhang
A low level of the neutral rate of interest increases the likelihood that a central bank’s policy rate will reach its effective lower bound (ELB) in future economic downturns. In a low neutral rate environment, using an extended monetary policy toolkit including forward guidance helps address the ELB challenge. Using the Bank’s Terms-of-Trade Economic Model, we assess the benefits and limitations of a state-contingent forward guidance implemented within a flexible inflation targeting framework.

How does the Bank of Canada’s balance sheet impact the banking system?

Staff Analytical Note 2022-12 Daniel Bolduc, Brad Howell, Grahame Johnson
We examine how changes in the Bank of Canada’s balance sheet impact the banking system. Quantitative easing contributed to an increase in the size of the banking system’s balance sheet and an improvement in bank liquidity coverage ratios. Quantitative tightening is expected to partially reverse these impacts. The banking system will have to adjust its liquidity management strategy in response.

Looking Through Supply Shocks versus Controlling Inflation Expectations: Understanding the Central Bank Dilemma

Staff Working Paper 2022-41 Paul Beaudry, Thomas J. Carter, Amartya Lahiri
Why might central banks want to look through supply-driven inflation sometimes and pivot away at other times? When does a change in monetary policy stance help anchor expectations? In this paper we present a simple environment that helps clarify these issues by offering an optimal policy perspective on recent central bank behaviour.

House Price Responses to Monetary Policy Surprises: Evidence from the U.S. Listings Data

Staff Working Paper 2022-39 Denis Gorea, Oleksiy Kryvtsov, Marianna Kudlyak
Existing literature documents that house prices respond to monetary policy surprises with a significant delay, taking years to reach their peak response. We present new evidence of a much faster response.
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