Heng Chen is a Principal Researcher in the Currency Department at the Bank of Canada. His primary research interests center on the structural identification and estimation of the causal effects of the method of payments on the cash usage. Specific topics include distributional estimations using the longitudinal CFM data. Heng Chen received his PhD in economics from Vanderbilt University.
This technical report describes sampling, weighting and variance estimation for the Bank of Canada’s 2017 Methods-of-Payment Survey. Under quota sampling, a raking ratio method is implemented to generate weights with both post-stratification and nonparametric nonresponse weight adjustments.
Cash is the preferred method of payment for small value transactions generally less than $25. We provide insight to this finding with a new theoretical model that characterizes and compares consumers’ costs of paying with cash to paying with cards for each transaction.
Calibrated weights are created to (a) reduce the nonresponse bias; (b) reduce the coverage error; and (c) make the weighted estimates from the sample consistent with the target population in terms of certain key variables.
Using data from our 2014 cost-of-payments survey, we calculate resource costs for cash, debit cards and credit cards. For each payment method, we examine the total cost incurred by consumers, retailers, financial institutions and infrastructures, the Royal Canadian Mint and the Bank of Canada.
“A Flexible Parametric Approach for Estimating Switching Regime Models and Treatment Effect Parameters” (with Yanqin Fan and Jisong Wu), Journal of Econometrics, 2014.
“Sheep in Wolf's Clothing: Using the Least Squares Criterion for Quantile Regression” Economics Letters, 2015.
“Inference for the Correlation Coefficient between Potential Outcomes in the Gaussian Switching Regime Model” (with Yanqin Fan and Ruixuan Liu), Journal of Econometrics, 2016.
“Retail Payment Innovations and Cash Usage: Accounting for Attrition Using Refreshment Samples” (with Marie-Helene Felt and Kim Huynh), Journal of Royal Statistical Society: Series A, 2016.
“Measuring Consumer Cash Holdings: Lessons from the 2013 Bank of Canada Methods-of-Payment Survey” (with Chris Henry, Kim Huynh, Rallye Shen, Kyle Vincent), Survey Practice, 2016.
“Variance Estimation for Survey-Weighted Data Using Bootstrap Resampling Methods: 2013 Methods-of-Payment Survey Questionnaire” (with Rallye Shen), Advances in Econometrics, 2018.
“Cash versus Card: Payment Discontinuities and the Burden of Holding Coins” (with Kim Huynh and Oz Shy), Journal of Banking and Finance, 2019.
“Identification and Wavelet Estimation of Weighted ATE in a Class of Switching Regime Models” (with Yanqin Fan), Journal of Econometrics, forthcoming.
“The Mode is the Message: Using Paradata to Identify Survey Design Effects” (with Geoff Dunbar and Rallye Shen), Advances in Econometrics, (Volume 41): Essays in Honor of Cheng Hsiao. Editors: M. Hashem Pesaran (USC), Tong Li (Vanderbilt), and Dek Terrell (LSU), 2019.
“Latent group structures with heterogeneous distributions: Identification and Estimation” (with Wendun Wang and Xuan Leng).
“Quantile Treatment Effects in the Regression Kink Design” (with Harold D. Chiang and Yuya Sasaki).
“Within-group Estimators for Fixed Effects Quantile Models with Large N and Large T”.
“Local Polynomial Wavelet Estimation of the Local Average Treatment Effect”.