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154 Results

Business Closures and (Re)Openings in Real Time Using Google Places

The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the need for policy-makers to closely monitor disruptions to the retail and food business sectors. We present a new method to measure business opening and closing rates using real-time data from Google Places, the dataset behind the Google Maps service.

The Countercyclical Capital Buffer and International Bank Lending: Evidence from Canada

Staff Working Paper 2021-61 David Xiao Chen, Christian Friedrich
We examine the impact of the CCyB on foreign lending activities of Canadian banks. We show that the announcement of a tightening in another country’s CCyB leads to a decrease in the growth rate of cross-border lending between Canadian banks and borrowers in that other country.

Are Bank Bailouts Welfare Improving?

Staff Working Paper 2021-56 Malik Shukayev, Alexander Ueberfeldt
Financial sector bailouts, while potentially beneficial during a crisis, might lead to excessive risk taking if anticipated. Taking expectations and aggregate risk implications into account, we show that bailouts can be welfare improving, but only if capital adequacy constraints are sufficiently tight.

Energy Efficiency and Fluctuations in CO2 Emissions

Staff Working Paper 2021-47 Soojin Jo, Lilia Karnizova
Carbon dioxide emissions have been commonly modelled as rising and falling with total output. Yet many factors, such as energy-efficiency improvements and shifts to cleaner energy, can break this relationship. We evaluate these factors using US data and find that changes in energy efficiency of consumption goods explain a significant proportion of emissions fluctuations. This finding also implies that models that omit energy efficiency likely overestimate the trade-off between environmental protection and economic performance.

More Money for Some: The Redistributive Effects of Open Market Operations

Staff Working Paper 2021-46 Christian Bustamante
I use a search-theoretic model of money to study how open market operations affect the conduct of monetary policy and what this means for households along the wealth distribution. In the model, households vary in the size and composition of their portfolios, which in turn implies that they may be unevenly affected by open market operations.

From He-Cession to She-Stimulus? The Labor Market Impact of Fiscal Policy Across Gender

Staff Working Paper 2021-42 Alica Ida Bonk, Laure Simon
The effects of fiscal policy shocks on labour market outcomes across gender depend on the type of public expenditure. Women benefit most from increases in the government wage bill, while men are the main beneficiaries of higher investment spending.

Fiscal Spillovers: The Case of US Corporate and Personal Income Taxes

Staff Working Paper 2021-41 Madeline Hanson, Daniela Hauser, Romanos Priftis
How do changes to personal and corporate income tax rates in the United States affect its trading partners? Spillover effects from cuts in the two taxes differ. They are generally small and negative for corporate taxes, but sizable and positive for personal income taxes.

The Anatomy of Sentiment-Driven Fluctuations

Staff Working Paper 2021-33 Sushant Acharya, Jess Benhabib, Zhen Huo
We show that changes in sentiment that aren’t related to fundamentals can drive persistent macroeconomic fluctuations even when all economic agents are rational. Changes in sentiment can also affect how fundamental shocks affect macroeconomic outcomes.

Small and smaller: How the economic outlook of small firms relates to size

Staff Analytical Note 2021-14 Chris D'Souza, James Fudurich, Farrukh Suvankulov
Firms with fewer than 100 workers employ about 65 percent of the total labour force in Canada. An online survey experiment was conducted with firms of this size in Canada in 2018–19. We compare the responses of small and micro firms to explore how their characteristics and economic outlooks relate to their size.

Can regulating bank capital help prevent and mitigate financial downturns?

Staff Analytical Note 2021-12 Alejandro García, Josef Schroth
Countercyclical capital buffers are regulatory measures developed in response to the global financial crisis of 2008–09. This note focuses on how time-varying capital buffers can improve financial stability in Canada
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