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150 Results

Simulating Intraday Transactions in the Canadian Retail Batch System

Staff Working Paper 2023-1 Nellie Zhang
This paper proposes a unique approach to simulate intraday transactions in the Canadian retail payments batch system when such transactions are unobtainable. The simulation procedure has potential for helping with data-deficient problems where only high-level aggregate information is available.

Improving the Efficiency of Payments Systems Using Quantum Computing

We develop an algorithm and run it on a hybrid quantum annealing solver to find an ordering of payments that reduces the amount of system liquidity necessary without substantially increasing payment delays.

Potential benefits and key risks of fiat-referenced cryptoassets

Staff Analytical Note 2022-20 Hugh Ding, Natasha Khan, Bena Lands, Cameron MacDonald, Laura Zhao
Cryptoassets that reference a national currency (commonly known as stablecoins) aim to peg their value to the reference currency and typically use a reserve of traditional financial assets to maintain the peg. The market value of these fiat-referenced cryptoassets has grown more than thirtyfold between early 2020 and mid-2022. We explore some of their potential benefits and key risks.

The Relative Benefits and Risks of Stablecoins as a Means of Payment: A Case Study Perspective

Staff Discussion Paper 2022-21 Annetta Ho, Sriram Darbha, Yuliya Gorelkina, Alejandro García
Our paper contributes to the discussion about the utility of stablecoins for retail payments through an objective, evidence-based approach that compares stablecoins with traditional retail payment methods. The paper also provides insights that could be useful in the design of central bank digital currencies.

Grasping De(centralized) Fi(nance) Through the Lens of Economic Theory

Staff Working Paper 2022-43 Jonathan Chiu, Charles M. Kahn, Thorsten Koeppl
We analyze the value proposition and limitations of decentralized finance (DeFi). Based on a distributed ledger and smart contracts, DeFi can guarantee the execution of financial contracts, potentially lowering the costs of intermediation and improving financial inclusion.

PayTech and the D(ata) N(etwork) A(ctivities) of BigTech Platforms

Staff Working Paper 2022-35 Jonathan Chiu, Thorsten Koeppl
Why do BigTech platforms introduce payment services? We explore this using a model in which a monopoly platform faces a trade-off between the costs associated with privacy concerns and the revenue from data services. We then analyze the feedback effects between data and payments.

Cyber Security and Ransomware in Financial Markets

Staff Working Paper 2022-32 Toni Ahnert, Michael Brolley, David Cimon, Ryan Riordan
We develop a principal-agent model of cyber-attacking with fee-paying clients who delegate security decisions to financial platforms. We derive testable implications about clients’ vulnerability to cyber attacks and about the fees charged.
May 24, 2022

An Overview of Lynx, Canada’s High-Value Payment System

This document provides an overview of Lynx—Canada’s high-value payment system—and summarizes the system’s design. It explains the development and purpose of Lynx as well as the legal and regulatory framework governing its operation. It also describes the various settlement mechanisms and processes Lynx uses to allow system participants to meet their diverse payment needs while ensuring that risks that arise in the system are managed appropriately.

Transmission of Cyber Risk Through the Canadian Wholesale Payment System

Staff Working Paper 2022-23 Anneke Kosse, Zhentong Lu
This paper studies how the impact of a cyber attack that paralyzes one or multiple banks' ability to send payments would transmit to other banks through the Canadian wholesale payment system. Based on historical payment data, we simulate a wide range of scenarios and evaluate the total payment disruption in the system.

Identifying Financially Remote First Nations Reserves

Staff Discussion Paper 2022-11 Heng Chen, Walter Engert, Kim Huynh, Daneal O’Habib
Chen et al. (2021) show that almost one-third of First Nations band offices in Canada are within 1 kilometre (km) of an automated banking machine (ABM) or financial institution (FI) branch and more than half are within 5 km.
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