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367 Results

What Can Stockouts Tell Us About Inflation? Evidence from Online Micro Data

Staff Working Paper 2021-52 Alberto Cavallo, Oleksiy Kryvtsov
Did supply disruptions and cost pressures play a role in rising inflation in 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic? Using data collected from websites of large retailers in multiple sectors and countries, we show that shortages may indicate transitory inflationary pressures.

Energy Efficiency and Fluctuations in CO2 Emissions

Staff Working Paper 2021-47 Soojin Jo, Lilia Karnizova
Carbon dioxide emissions have been commonly modelled as rising and falling with total output. Yet many factors, such as energy-efficiency improvements and shifts to cleaner energy, can break this relationship. We evaluate these factors using US data and find that changes in energy efficiency of consumption goods explain a significant proportion of emissions fluctuations. This finding also implies that models that omit energy efficiency likely overestimate the trade-off between environmental protection and economic performance.

More Money for Some: The Redistributive Effects of Open Market Operations

Staff Working Paper 2021-46 Christian Bustamante
I use a search-theoretic model of money to study how open market operations affect the conduct of monetary policy and what this means for households along the wealth distribution. In the model, households vary in the size and composition of their portfolios, which in turn implies that they may be unevenly affected by open market operations.

From He-Cession to She-Stimulus? The Labor Market Impact of Fiscal Policy Across Gender

Staff Working Paper 2021-42 Alica Ida Bonk, Laure Simon
The effects of fiscal policy shocks on labour market outcomes across gender depend on the type of public expenditure. Women benefit most from increases in the government wage bill, while men are the main beneficiaries of higher investment spending.

Fiscal Spillovers: The Case of US Corporate and Personal Income Taxes

Staff Working Paper 2021-41 Madeline Hanson, Daniela Hauser, Romanos Priftis
How do changes to personal and corporate income tax rates in the United States affect its trading partners? Spillover effects from cuts in the two taxes differ. They are generally small and negative for corporate taxes, but sizable and positive for personal income taxes.

The Bank of Canada’s “Horse Race” of Alternative Monetary Policy Frameworks: Some Interim Results from Model Simulations

Staff Discussion Paper 2021-13 José Dorich, Rhys R. Mendes, Yang Zhang
Bank of Canada staff are running a “horse race” of alternative monetary policy frameworks in the lead-up to 2021 renewal of the Bank’s monetary policy framework. This paper summarizes some interim results of model simulations from their research.

Exploring the potential benefits of inflation overshooting

Staff Analytical Note 2021-16 Robert Amano, Marc-André Gosselin, Kurt See
After a period with the interest rate at the effective lower bound, temporarily overshooting inflation may offer important economic benefits. This may be especially true for vulnerable segments of the population, such as workers with low attachment to the labour force and the long-term unemployed.

Sequencing Extended Monetary Policies at the Effective Lower Bound

In this analysis, we use simulations in the Bank of Canada’s projection model—the Terms-of-Trade Economic Model—to consider a suite of extended monetary policies to support the economy following the COVID-19 crisis.

The Side Effects of Safe Asset Creation

Staff Working Paper 2021-34 Sushant Acharya, Keshav Dogra
The secular decline in real interest rates has created a challenge for monetary policy, now confronting the zero lower bound more often. An increase in the supply of safe assets reduces downward pressure on the natural interest rate. This allows monetary policy to reach price stability and full employment, but not without cost—permanently lower investment.
Content Type(s): Staff research, Staff working papers Topic(s): Fiscal policy, Monetary policy implementation JEL Code(s): E, E3, E4, E5, G, G1, H, H6

The Anatomy of Sentiment-Driven Fluctuations

Staff Working Paper 2021-33 Sushant Acharya, Jess Benhabib, Zhen Huo
We show that changes in sentiment that aren’t related to fundamentals can drive persistent macroeconomic fluctuations even when all economic agents are rational. Changes in sentiment can also affect how fundamental shocks affect macroeconomic outcomes.
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