Angelika Welte

Senior Economist


Angelika holds a PhD in Mathematics and a MA in Economics. In her work, she uses empirical microeconomics to understand why and how consumers and firms choose payment methods.  This year, Angelika is working on a project that will provide insights in the merchant acquiring industry in Canada.  Merchant acquirers have a central role in card payment system as they connect card accepting businesses to the payment networks, authorize and process card transactions and may also provide point-of-sale equipment to merchants. The goal of this project is to better understand the structure of the acquiring market and how it relates to payment efficiency.

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Staff Analytical Notes

Merchant Acceptance of Cash and Credit Cards at the Point of Sale

Staff Analytical Note 2018-1 Ben Fung, Kim Huynh, Kerry Nield, Angelika Welte
Recent data show that the use of credit cards in Canada has been increasing, while the use of cash has been declining. At the same time, only two-thirds of small or medium-sized businesses accept credit cards.

Staff Discussion Papers

2017 Methods-of-Payment Survey Report

Staff Discussion Paper 2018-17 Christopher Henry, Kim Huynh, Angelika Welte
Cash use is declining while contactless and mobile payments are on the rise.

The Costs of Point-of-Sale Payments in Canada

Using data from our 2014 cost-of-payments survey, we calculate resource costs for cash, debit cards and credit cards. For each payment method, we examine the total cost incurred by consumers, retailers, financial institutions and infrastructures, the Royal Canadian Mint and the Bank of Canada.

The Bank of Canada’s 2009 Methods-of-Payment Survey: Methodology and Key Results

Staff Discussion Paper 2012-6 Carlos Arango, Angelika Welte
The authors present the methodology and main findings of the Bank of Canada’s 2009 Methods-of-Payment survey, a detailed investigation of consumer payment behaviour in Canada. The survey targeted the 18- to 75-year-old Canadian resident population.

Staff Working Papers

Adoption Costs of Financial Innovation: Evidence from Italian ATM Cards

The discrete choice to adopt a financial innovation affects a household’s exposure to inflation and transactions costs. We model this adoption decision as being subject to an unobserved cost.

Wait a Minute: The Efficacy of Discounting versus Non-Pecuniary Payment Steering

Staff Working Paper 2016-8 Angelika Welte
Merchants who accept credit cards face payment processing fees. In most countries, the no-surcharge rule prohibits them from using surcharges to pass these fees on to customers.

Why Do Shoppers Use Cash? Evidence from Shopping Diary Data

Staff Working Paper 2012-24 Naoki Wakamori, Angelika Welte
Recent studies find that cash remains a dominant payment choice for small-value transactions despite the prevalence of alternative means of payment such as debit and credit cards. For policy makers an important question is whether consumers truly prefer using cash or merchants restrict card usage.

Journal Publications

Other publications