Angelika Welte

Senior Economist

Angelika Welte is a Senior Economist in the Economic Research and Analysis group of the Currency Department at the Bank of Canada. She joined the Bank of Canada in 2011. Her interests include applied econometrics, industrial organization and monetary policy. Angelika holds a Master’s degree in economics from Carleton University and a PhD in mathematics from University of Ottawa.


Angelika Welte

Senior Economist
Economic Research and Analysis

Bank of Canada
234 Wellington Street
Ottawa, ON, K1A 0G9


Merchant Acceptance of Cash and Credit Cards at the Point of Sale

Staff Analytical Note 2018-1 Ben Fung, Kim Huynh, Kerry Nield, Angelika Welte
Recent data show that the use of credit cards in Canada has been increasing, while the use of cash has been declining. At the same time, only two-thirds of small or medium-sized businesses accept credit cards.

The Bank of Canada 2015 Retailer Survey on the Cost of Payment Methods: Sampling

Technical Report No. 108 Angelika Welte
In 2015, the Bank of Canada undertook the large-scale Retailer Survey on the Cost of Payment Methods.

The Costs of Point-of-Sale Payments in Canada

This study provides insight into the costs of cash, debit card and credit card payments made at the point of sale in Canada in 2014. For each payment method, it examines the total resource costs, which capture the overall use of resources by society as a whole.

Adoption Costs of Financial Innovation: Evidence from Italian ATM Cards

The discrete choice to adopt a financial innovation affects a household’s exposure to inflation and transactions costs. We model this adoption decision as being subject to an unobserved cost.

Wait a Minute: The Efficacy of Discounting versus Non-Pecuniary Payment Steering

Staff Working Paper 2016-8 Angelika Welte
Merchants who accept credit cards face payment processing fees. In most countries, the no-surcharge rule prohibits them from using surcharges to pass these fees on to customers.

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Other Publications

Research Interests

  • Econometrics
  • Industrial organization
  • Monetary policy
  • Non-associative rings and algebras.


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