- PhD Economics, Université Clermont Auvergne, FR (2020)
- M.Sc. Mathematics, McMaster University (2012)
- MA Economics, Western University (2012)
- B.Sc. Honour Mathematics Co-op, McMaster University (2009)
Christopher (Chris) is a Senior Economist and serves as lead for the consumer survey research program on the Currency Department’s Economic Research and Analysis team. Chris first joined the Bank as a Research Assistant in 2012, and recently rejoined in 2021 after completing his PhD in Economics. In his role, Chris contributes to the design, implementation, and analysis of a range of surveys that measure the use of cash and alternative methods of payment. He holds an PhD in Economics from Université Clermont Auvergne (France), and an MSc in Mathematics from McMaster University.
Staff analytical notes
Staff discussion papers
2021 Methods-of-Payment Survey ReportWe present results from the 2021 Methods-of-Payment Survey, including updated payment shares. We highlight long-term trends and provide additional context for results with respect to the COVID-19 pandemic.
2018 Bitcoin Omnibus Survey: Awareness and UsageThe Bank of Canada continues to use the Bitcoin Omnibus Survey (BTCOS) to monitor trends in Canadians’ awareness, ownership and use of Bitcoin. The most recent iteration was conducted in late 2018, following an 85 percent decline in the price of Bitcoin throughout the year.
2017 Methods-of-Payment Survey ReportCash use is declining while contactless and mobile payments are on the rise.
2013 Methods-of-Payment Survey ResultsAs the sole issuer of bank notes, the Bank of Canada conducts methods-of-payment (MOP) surveys to obtain a detailed and representative snapshot of Canadian payment choices, with a focus on cash usage.
Staff working papers
Private Digital Cryptoassets as Investment? Bitcoin Ownership and Use in Canada, 2016-2021We report on the dynamics of Bitcoin awareness and ownership from 2016 to 2021, using the Bank of Canada's Bitcoin Omnibus Surveys (BTCOS). Our analysis also helps understand Bitcoin owners who adopted during the COVID-19 and how they differ from long-term owners.
Cash in the Pocket, Cash in the Cloud: Cash Holdings of Bitcoin OwnersWe estimate the effect that owning Bitcoin has on the amount of cash held by Canadian consumers. Our results question the view that adopting certain new technologies, such as Bitcoin, leads to a decline in cash holdings.
Bitcoin Adoption and Beliefs in CanadaUsing an economic model as well as survey data from the Bank of Canada, we study what factors influence the adoption of Bitcoin in Canada.
Bitcoin Awareness and Usage in CanadaThere has been tremendous discussion of Bitcoin, digital currencies and FinTech. However, there is limited empirical evidence of Bitcoin’s adoption and usage. We propose a methodology to collect a nationally representative sample using the Bitcoin Omnibus Survey (BTCOS) to track the ubiquity and usage of Bitcoin in Canada.
2017 Methods-of-Payment Survey: Sample Calibration and Variance EstimationThis technical report describes sampling, weighting and variance estimation for the Bank of Canada’s 2017 Methods-of-Payment Survey. Under quota sampling, a raking ratio method is implemented to generate weights with both post-stratification and nonparametric nonresponse weight adjustments.
Financial System Hub articles
October 12, 2022