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720 Results

Anonymous Credentials: Secret-Free and Quantum-Safe

Staff Working Paper 2023-50 Raza Ali Kazmi, Cyrus Minwalla
An anonymous credential mechanism is a set of protocols that allows users to obtain credentials from an organization and demonstrate ownership of these credentials without compromising users’ privacy. In this work, we construct the first secret-free and quantum-safe credential mechanism.

Forecasting Risks to the Canadian Economic Outlook at a Daily Frequency

Staff Discussion Paper 2023-19 Chinara Azizova, Bruno Feunou, James Kyeong
This paper quantifies tail risks in the outlooks for Canadian inflation and real GDP growth by estimating their conditional distributions at a daily frequency. We show that the tail risk probabilities derived from the conditional distributions accurately reflect realized outcomes during the sample period from 2002 to 2022.

Understanding DeFi Through the Lens of a Production-Network Model

Staff Working Paper 2023-42 Jonathan Chiu, Thorsten Koeppl, Hanna Yu, Shengxing Zhang
We develop a production-network model to capture how decentralized finance (DeFi) has evolved across different sectors of financial services. The model allows us to measure the value added by different DeFi sectors and to study how the connections across the sectors influence token prices.

Generalized Autoregressive Gamma Processes

Staff Working Paper 2023-40 Bruno Feunou
We introduce generalized autoregressive gamma (GARG) processes, a class of autoregressive and moving-average processes in which each conditional moment dynamic is driven by a different and identifiable moving average of the variable of interest. We show that using GARG processes reduces pricing errors by substantially more than using existing autoregressive gamma processes does.

Do hedge funds support liquidity in the Government of Canada bond market?

Staff Analytical Note 2023-11 Jabir Sandhu, Rishi Vala
While Government of Canada bond transactions of hedge funds are typically in the opposite direction to those of other market participants, during the peak period of market turmoil in March 2020, hedge funds sold these bonds, just as other market participants did. This shows that hedge funds can at times contribute to one-sided markets and amplify declines in market liquidity.

BoC–BoE Sovereign Default Database: What’s new in 2023?

Staff Analytical Note 2023-10 David Beers, Obiageri Ndukwe, Karim McDaniels, Alex Charron
The BoC–BoE database of sovereign debt defaults, published and updated annually by the Bank of Canada and the Bank of England, provides comprehensive estimates of stocks of government obligations in default. The 2023 edition includes a new section about the characteristics of sovereign defaults and provides new visuals showing regional debt in default.

BoC–BoE Sovereign Default Database: Appendix and References

Technical Report No. 125 David Beers, Obiageri Ndukwe, Alex Charron
Since 2014, the Bank of Canada (BoC) has maintained a comprehensive database of sovereign defaults to systematically measure and aggregate the nominal value of the different types of sovereign government debt in default. The database is posted on the BoC’s website and is updated annually in partnership with the Bank of England (BoE).

BoC–BoE Sovereign Default Database: Methodology and Assumptions

Technical Report No. 124 David Beers, Obiageri Ndukwe, Alex Charron
The Bank of Canada (BoC), in partnership with the Bank of England (BoE), developed a comprehensive database of sovereign defaults in 2014. The database is posted on the Bank of Canada’s website and updated annually. The BoC–BoE database draws on datasets published by various public and private sector sources. It combines elements of these, together with new information, to develop comprehensive estimates of stocks of government obligations in default.

Is Climate Transition Risk Priced into Corporate Credit Risk? Evidence from Credit Default Swaps

Staff Working Paper 2023-38 Andrea Ugolini, Juan C. Reboredo, Javier Ojea Ferreiro
We study whether the credit derivatives of firms reflect the risk from climate transition. We find that climate transition risk has asymmetric and significant economic impacts on the credit risk of more vulnerable firms, and negligible effects on other firms.

Global Demand and Supply Sentiment: Evidence from Earnings Calls

Staff Working Paper 2023-37 Temel Taskin, Franz Ulrich Ruch
This paper quantifies global demand, supply and uncertainty shocks and compares two major global recessions: the 2008–09 Great Recession and the COVID-19 pandemic. We use two alternate approaches to decompose economic shocks: text mining techniques on earnings calls transcripts and a structural Bayesian vector autoregression model.
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