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60 result(s)

The Role of Public Money in the Digital Age

Staff Discussion Paper 2024-11 Francisco Rivadeneyra, Scott Hendry, Alejandro García
A well-functioning monetary system is characterized by public and private forms of money that exchange at par as value flows freely between them. A relevant retail public money—whether in the form of cash, a central bank digital currency or both—is a necessary component of such a monetary system.

Analysis of DeFi Oracles

Oracles are constructs used in decentralized finance to price assets relative to each other. However, oracles contain defects that could lead to manipulation attacks. Such attacks exploit pricing models embedded within oracles to defraud creators and users. We automatically verify defects, which if mitigated, improves the security of digital currency.

2023 Methods-of-Payment Survey Report: The Resilience of Cash

Staff Discussion Paper 2024-8 Christopher Henry, Matthew Shimoda, Doina Rusu
We present key results from the 2023 Methods-of-Payment Survey. Results show that measures of cash management and use have remained stable since 2020, and that Canadians increased their adoption of payment alternatives such as mobile apps in 2023.

The Role of Beliefs in Entering and Exiting the Bitcoin Market

We develop a model that links investors’ decisions to enter or exit the Bitcoin market with their beliefs about the survival of Bitcoin. Empirical testing using Canadian data reveals that beliefs strongly influence both entries and exits, and this impact varies with time and ownership status.

Digital Payments in Firm Networks: Theory of Adoption and Quantum Algorithm

We build a network formation game of firms with trade flows to study the adoption and usage of a new digital currency as an alternative to correspondent banking.

CBDC: Banking and Anonymity

Staff Working Paper 2024-9 Yuteng Cheng, Ryuichiro Izumi
We examine the optimal amount of user anonymity in a central bank digital currency in the context of bank lending. Anonymity, defined as the lender’s inability to discern an entrepreneur’s actions that enable fund diversion, influences the choice of payment instrument due to its impact on a bank’s lending decisions.
Content Type(s): Staff research, Staff working papers Topic(s): Digital currencies and fintech JEL Code(s): E, E4, E42, E5, E58, G, G2, G28

Central Bank Digital Currency and Banking Choices

Staff Working Paper 2024-4 Jiaqi Li, Andrew Usher, Yu Zhu
To what extent does a central bank digital currency (CBDC) compete with bank deposits? To answer this question, we develop and estimate a structural model where each household chooses which financial institution to deposit their digital money with.

2022 Methods-of-Payment Survey Report: Cash Use Over 13 Years

Staff Discussion Paper 2024-1 Christopher Henry, Doina Rusu, Matthew Shimoda
We present results from the 2022 Methods-of-Payment Survey, including updated payment shares based on a three-day shopping diary. We also assess various factors associated with long-term trends in cash use.

How Far Do Canadians Need to Travel to Access Cash?

Staff Discussion Paper 2023-28 Heng Chen, Daneal O’Habib, Hongyu Xiao
This paper develops a travel-based metric to measure Canadians’ access to cash from automated banking machines (ABMs) and financial institution branches. We find that, overall, access to cash remained stable between 2019 and 2022. The total number of ABMs in Canada increased by 3.7% and the total number of branches decreased by 5.2% during that period.

Redefining Financial Inclusion for a Digital Age: Implications for a Central Bank Digital Currency

We explore quantitative and qualitative information about Canadians who face barriers to making digital payments. We also consider the implications of ongoing digitalization for modern financial inclusion and a potential central bank digital currency.
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