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104 Results

Finding a Needle in a Haystack: A Machine Learning Framework for Anomaly Detection in Payment Systems

Staff Working Paper 2024-15 Ajit Desai, Anneke Kosse, Jacob Sharples
Our layered machine learning framework can enhance real-time transaction monitoring in high-value payment systems, which are a central piece of a country’s financial infrastructure. When tested on data from Canadian payment systems, it demonstrated potential for accurately identifying anomalous transactions. This framework could help improve cyber and operational resilience of payment systems.

CBDC: Banking and Anonymity

Staff Working Paper 2024-9 Yuteng Cheng, Ryuichiro Izumi
We examine the optimal amount of user anonymity in a central bank digital currency in the context of bank lending. Anonymity, defined as the lender’s inability to discern an entrepreneur’s actions that enable fund diversion, influences the choice of payment instrument due to its impact on a bank’s lending decisions.
Content Type(s): Staff research, Staff working papers Topic(s): Digital currencies and fintech JEL Code(s): E, E4, E42, E5, E58, G, G2, G28

Estimating the Appropriate Quantity of Settlement Balances in a Floor System

Staff Discussion Paper 2023-26 Narayan Bulusu, Matthew McNeely, Kaetlynd McRae, Jonathan Witmer
This paper presents two complementary approaches to estimating the appropriate quantity of settlement balances needed to effectively operate monetary policy under a floor system in Canada.

Three things we learned about the Lynx payment system

Staff Analytical Note 2023-14 Nikil Chande, Zhentong Lu, Hiru Rodrigo, Phoebe Tian
Canada transitioned to a new wholesale payment system, Lynx, in August 2021. Lynx is based on a real-time settlement model that eliminates credit risk in the system. This model can require more liquidity; however, Lynx’s design allows Canada’s wholesale payments to settle efficiently.

Redefining Financial Inclusion for a Digital Age: Implications for a Central Bank Digital Currency

We explore quantitative and qualitative information about Canadians who face barriers to making digital payments. We also consider the implications of ongoing digitalization for modern financial inclusion and a potential central bank digital currency.

Anonymous Credentials: Secret-Free and Quantum-Safe

Staff Working Paper 2023-50 Raza Ali Kazmi, Cyrus Minwalla
An anonymous credential mechanism is a set of protocols that allows users to obtain credentials from an organization and demonstrate ownership of these credentials without compromising users’ privacy. In this work, we construct the first secret-free and quantum-safe credential mechanism.

Privacy-Preserving Post-Quantum Credentials for Digital Payments

Staff Working Paper 2023-33 Raza Ali Kazmi, Duc-Phong Le, Cyrus Minwalla
Digital payments and decentralized systems enable the creation of new financial products and services for users. One core challenge in digital payments is the need to protect users from fraud and abuse while retaining privacy in individual transactions. We propose a pseudonymous credential scheme for use in payment systems to tackle this problem.

Reviewing Canada’s Monetary Policy Implementation System: Does the Evolving Environment Support Maintaining a Floor System?

Staff Discussion Paper 2023-10 Toni Gravelle, Ron Morrow, Jonathan Witmer
At the onset of the pandemic, the Bank of Canada transitioned its framework for monetary policy implementation from a corridor system to a floor system, which it has since decided to maintain. We provide a comprehensive analysis of both frameworks and assess their relative merits based on five key criteria that define a sound framework.

How Banks Create Gridlock to Save Liquidity in Canada's Large Value Payment System

Staff Working Paper 2023-26 Rodney J. Garratt, Zhentong Lu, Phoebe Tian
We show how participants in Canada’s new high-value payment system save liquidity by exploiting the new gridlock resolution arrangement. The findings have important implications for the design of these systems and shed light on financial institutions’ liquidity preference.

From LVTS to Lynx: Quantitative Assessment of Payment System Transition

We quantitatively assess the changes in participants’ payment behaviour from modernizing Canada's high-value payments system to Lynx. Our analysis suggests that Lynx's liquidity-saving mechanism encourages liquidity pooling and early payments submission, resulting in improved efficiency for participants but with slightly increased payment delays.
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