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101 Results

Regulatory Requirements of Banks and Arbitrage in the Post-Crisis Federal Funds Market

Staff Working Paper 2022-48 Rodney J. Garratt, Sofia Priazhkina
This paper explains the nature of interest rates in the U.S. federal funds market after the 2007-09 financial crisis. We build a model of the over-the-counter lending market that incorporates new aspects of the financial system: abundance of liquidity, different regulatory standards for banks, and arbitrage opportunities created by limited access to the facility granting interest on excess reserves.

Considerations for the allocation of non-default losses by financial market infrastructures

Staff Analytical Note 2022-16 Daniele Costanzo, Radoslav Raykov
Non-default losses of financial market infrastructures (FMIs) have gained attention due to their potential impacts on FMIs and FMI participants, and the lack of a common approach to address them. A key question is, who should absorb these losses?

Forecasting Banks’ Corporate Loan Losses Under Stress: A New Corporate Default Model

Technical Report No. 122 Gabriel Bruneau, Thibaut Duprey, Ruben Hipp
We present a new corporate default model, one of the building blocks of the Bank of Canada’s bank stress-testing infrastructure. The model is used to forecast corporate loan losses of the Canadian banking sector under stress.

Unregulated Lending, Mortgage Regulations and Monetary Policy

Staff Working Paper 2022-28 Ugochi Emenogu, Brian Peterson
This paper evaluates the effectiveness of macroprudential policies when regulations are uneven across mortgage lender types. We look at credit tightening that results from macroprudential regulations and examine how much of it is counteracted by credit shifting to unregulated lenders. We also study the impact of monetary policy tightening when some lenders are unregulated.

Quantifying the Economic Benefits of Payments Modernization: the Case of the Large-Value Payment System

Staff Working Paper 2021-64 Neville Arjani, Fuchun Li, Zhentong Lu
Canada is undertaking a major initiative to modernize its payments ecosystem. The modernized ecosystem is expected to bring significant benefits to Canadian financial markets and the overall economy. We develop an empirical framework to quantify the economic benefits of modernizing the payment system in Canada.

Monetary Policy Spillover to Small Open Economies: Is the Transmission Different under Low Interest Rates?

Does the transmission of monetary policy change when interest rates are low or negative? We shed light on this question by analyzing the international bank lending channels of monetary policy using regulatory data on banks from four small open economies: Canada, Chile, the Czech Republic and Norway.

The Countercyclical Capital Buffer and International Bank Lending: Evidence from Canada

Staff Working Paper 2021-61 David Xiao Chen, Christian Friedrich
We examine the impact of the CCyB on foreign lending activities of Canadian banks. We show that the announcement of a tightening in another country’s CCyB leads to a decrease in the growth rate of cross-border lending between Canadian banks and borrowers in that other country.

Updated Methodology for Assigning Credit Ratings to Sovereigns

We update the Bank of Canada’s credit rating methodology for sovereigns, including our approach to assessing their fiscal position and monetary policy flexibility. We also explicitly consider climate-related factors.

Optimal Monetary and Macroprudential Policies

Staff Working Paper 2021-21 Josef Schroth
Optimal coordination of monetary and macroprudential policies implies higher risk weights on (safe) bonds any time that banks are required to hold additional capital buffers. Coordination also implies a somewhat tighter monetary-policy stance whenever such capital buffers are released.
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