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282 Results

The Macroeconomic Implications of Coholding

Staff Working Paper 2024-16 Michael Boutros, Andrej Mijakovic
Coholder households simultaneously carry high-cost credit card debt and low-yield cash. We study the implications of this behavior for fiscal and monetary policy, finding that coholder households have smaller consumption responses in the short run but larger responses in the long run.

Endogenous Credibility and Wage-Price Spirals

Staff Working Paper 2024-14 Olena Kostyshyna, Tolga Özden, Yang Zhang
We quantitively assess the risks of a wage-price spiral occurring in Canada over history. We find the risk of a wage-price spiral increases when the inflation expectations become unanchored and the credibility of central banks declines.

Potential output in Canada: 2024 assessment

We expect that potential output in Canada will grow by 2.3% and 2.5% in 2023 and 2024, respectively, and average slightly below 1.7% by 2027 as population growth moderates. Relative to the April 2023 assessment, growth is revised up in 2024, with a larger contribution from trend labour input due to higher-than-anticipated population growth. We revise down our estimates of growth over 2025–26.

Assessing the US and Canadian neutral rates: 2024 update

We assess both the US and Canadian nominal neutral rates to be in the range of 2.25% to 3.25%, somewhat higher than the range of 2.0% to 3.0% in 2023. The assessed range is back to the level it was at in April 2019.

The Neutral Interest Rate: Past, Present and Future

Staff Discussion Paper 2024-3 Matteo Cacciatore, Bruno Feunou, Galip Kemal Ozhan
The decline in safe real interest rates over the past three decades has reignited discussions on the neutral real interest rate, known as R*. We address the determinants and estimation methods of R*, as well as the factors influencing its decline and its future trajectory.
February 6, 2024

Monetary policy: It’s perfectly imperfect

Speech summary Tiff Macklem Montreal Council on Foreign Relations Montréal, Quebec
Governor Tiff Macklem speaks about the effectiveness—and limitations—of monetary policy. He highlights how raising and lowering the policy interest rate ultimately keeps inflation low, stable and predictable, despite significant shocks to the economy.
February 6, 2024

Monetary policy: The right tool for the right job

Remarks Tiff Macklem Montreal Council on Foreign Relations Montréal, Quebec
Governor Tiff Macklem discusses how monetary policy is working to bring inflation down—and how it has worked to return inflation to target over the last 25 years. He also talks about the limits of monetary policy, and why the right focus is on controlling inflation in the medium term.

Monetary Policy and Racial Inequality in Housing Markets: A Study of 140 US Metropolitan Areas

Staff Working Paper 2023-62 Qi Li, Xu Zhang
We find that minority households see greater declines in housing returns and entries into homeownership than White households after a tightening of monetary policy. Our findings emphasize the unintended consequences of monetary policy on racial inequality in the housing market.
Content Type(s): Staff research, Staff working papers Topic(s): Central bank research, Housing, Monetary policy JEL Code(s): E, E4, E40, E5, E52, R, R0, R00

Perceived versus Calibrated Income Risks in Heterogeneous-Agent Consumption Models

Staff Working Paper 2023-59 Tao Wang
Perceived income risks reported in a survey of consumer expectations are more heterogeneous and, on average, lower than indirectly calibrated risks based on panel data. They prove to be one explanation for why a large fraction of households hold very little liquid savings and why accumulated wealth is widely unequal across households.
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