Change theme
Change theme


Content Types


JEL Codes






Published After

Published Before

9069 Results

June 17, 2024

Enforcement process

This supervisory policy outlines the Bank of Canada’s enforcement process and what individuals, entities and payment service providers should expect if the Bank takes enforcement action against them.
June 17, 2024

Significant adverse impact

This supervisory policy provides an overview of what the Bank of Canada will consider when determining whether a “significant adverse impact” is occurring or has occurred.
June 17, 2024

Issuing public notice of decisions

This supervisory policy provides details on the Bank of Canada’s issuing of public notice for certain retail payments supervision and Governor’s decisions.
June 17, 2024

Governor’s review

This supervisory policy describes the Bank of Canada’s Governor’s review process and outlines what individuals, entities and payment service providers should expect if they request a Governor’s review of a retail payments supervision decision.
June 17, 2024

Administrative monetary penalties

This supervisory policy provides an overview of the Bank of Canada’s administrative monetary penalties (AMPs) regime and how the Bank determines administrative monetary penalty amounts.

Demand for Canadian Banknotes from International Travel: Indirect Evidence from the COVID-19 Pandemic

Staff Working Paper 2024-23 Hongyu Xiao
This study uses the COVID-19 travel restrictions to estimate foreign demand for Canadian banknotes. It reveals that international visitors accounted for about 10% of all $100 CAD notes in circulation pre-pandemic, with each visitor carrying an average of $165 in hundred-dollar bills.

The Role of Beliefs in Entering and Exiting the Bitcoin Market

We develop a model that links investors’ decisions to enter or exit the Bitcoin market with their beliefs about the survival of Bitcoin. Empirical testing using Canadian data reveals that beliefs strongly influence both entries and exits, and this impact varies with time and ownership status.
Go To Page