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73 Results

The BoC-BoE Sovereign Default Database Revisited: What’s New in 2018?

Staff Working Paper 2018-30 David Beers, Jamshid Mavalwalla
Until recently, there have been few efforts to systematically measure and aggregate the nominal value of the different types of sovereign government debt in default. To help fill this gap, the Bank of Canada’s Credit Rating Assessment Group (CRAG) has developed a comprehensive database of sovereign defaults posted on the Bank of Canada’s website that now is updated in partnership with the Bank of England.

Customer Liquidity Provision in Canadian Bond Markets

Staff Analytical Note 2018-12 Corey Garriott, Jesse Johal
This analytical note assesses the prevalence of liquidity provision by institutional investors in Canadian bonds. We find that the practice is not prevalent in Canada. Customer liquidity provision is more prevalent for less liquid bonds, on days when liquidity is already expensive or when there are larger trading volumes. In our interpretation, Canadian dealers draw on customer liquidity as a supplementary source of liquidity and only when necessary, given its cost.

Order Flow Segmentation, Liquidity and Price Discovery: The Role of Latency Delays

Staff Working Paper 2018-16 Michael Brolley, David Cimon
Latency delays—known as “speed bumps”—are an intentional slowing of order flow by exchanges. Supporters contend that delays protect market makers from high-frequency arbitrage, while opponents warn that delays promote “quote fading” by market makers. We construct a model of informed trading in a fragmented market, where one market operates a conventional order book and the other imposes a latency delay on market orders.

High-Frequency Trading and Institutional Trading Costs

Staff Working Paper 2018-8 Marie Chen, Corey Garriott
Using data on Canadian bond futures, we examine how high-frequency traders (HFTs) interact with institutions building large positions. In contrast to recent findings, we find HFTs in the data act as small-sized liquidity suppliers, and we reject the hypothesis that they engage in back running, a predatory trading strategy.

Speed Segmentation on Exchanges: Competition for Slow Flow

In 2015, TSX Alpha, a Canadian stock exchange, implemented a speed bump for marketable orders and an inverted fee structure as part of a redesign. We find no evidence that this redesign impacted market-wide measures of trading costs or contributed appreciably to segmenting retail order flow away from other Canadian venues with a maker-taker fee structure.

Do Liquidity Proxies Measure Liquidity in Canadian Bond Markets?

Staff Analytical Note 2017-23 Jean-Sébastien Fontaine, Jeffrey Gao, Jabir Sandhu, Kobe Wu
This analytical note evaluates the reliability of proxies for measuring liquidity in Canadian bond markets. We find that price-impact and bid-ask proxies paint a similar picture of evolving liquidity conditions to that obtained from richer measures of liquidity for benchmark Government of Canada bonds.
Content Type(s): Staff research, Staff analytical notes Topic(s): Debt management, Financial markets JEL Code(s): G, G1, G12, G14, G2, G23, G3, G32

Do Canadian Broker-Dealers Act as Agents or Principals in Bond Trading?

Staff Analytical Note 2017-11 Daniel Hyun, Jesse Johal, Corey Garriott
Technology, risk tolerance and regulation may influence dealers to reduce their trading as principals (using their own balance sheets for sales and purchases of securities) in favour of agency trading (matching client trades).

Has Liquidity in Canadian Government Bond Markets Deteriorated?

Staff Analytical Note 2017-10 Sermin Gungor, Jun Yang

This note presents measures of liquidity used by the Bank of Canada to monitor market conditions and discusses recent trends in Government of Canada (GoC) fixed-income market liquidity. Our results indicate that the Bank’s measures have improved since the financial crisis. Furthermore, GoC market liquidity deteriorated following several stressful events: the euro crisis in 2011, the taper tantrum in 2013 and the oil price shock in 2015. In all three cases, the deterioration remained within historical norms and liquidity returned to normal levels afterwards.

Content Type(s): Staff research, Staff analytical notes Topic(s): Financial markets JEL Code(s): G, G1, G12, G14

What Explains Month-End Funding Pressure in Canada?

Staff Discussion Paper 2017-9 Christopher S. Sutherland
The Canadian overnight repo market persistently shows signs of latent funding pressure around month-end periods. Both the overnight repo rate and Bank of Canada liquidity provision tend to rise in these windows. This paper proposes three non-mutually exclusive hypotheses to explain this phenomenon.

Small‐Sample Tests for Stock Return Predictability with Possibly Non‐Stationary Regressors and GARCH‐Type Effects

Staff Working Paper 2017-10 Sermin Gungor, Richard Luger
We develop a simulation-based procedure to test for stock return predictability with multiple regressors. The process governing the regressors is left completely free and the test procedure remains valid in small samples even in the presence of non-normalities and GARCH-type effects in the stock returns.
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