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Staff Discussion Papers

Regulatory Constraints on Bank Leverage: Issues and Lessons from the Canadian Experience

Staff Discussion Paper 2009-15 Étienne Bordeleau, Allan Crawford, Christopher Graham
The Basel capital framework plays an important role in risk management by linking a bank's minimum capital requirements to the riskiness of its assets. Nevertheless, the risk estimates underlying these calculations may be imperfect, and it appears that a cyclical bias in measures of risk-adjusted capital contributed to procyclical increases in global leverage prior to the recent financial crisis.

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Staff Working Papers

The Impact of Liquidity on Bank Profitability

Staff Working Paper 2010-38 Étienne Bordeleau, Christopher Graham
The recent crisis has underlined the importance of sound bank liquidity management. In response, regulators are devising new liquidity standards with the aim of making the financial system more stable and resilient. In this paper, the authors analyse the impact of liquid asset holdings on bank profitability for a sample of large U.S. and Canadian banks.

Corporate Balance Sheets in Developed Economies: Implications for Investment

Staff Working Paper 2007-24 Denise Côté, Christopher Graham
In this paper, the authors examine the aggregate national balance-sheets of non-financial corporations in Australia and the G7 countries with a view to assessing both their financial structure and their financial position. More importantly, the authors investigate whether the financial position of non-financial corporations (i.e., debt-to-equity ratio) is material to the economy's investment prospects and whether the importance of this channel differs depending on the structure of corporate financing i.e., bank-based or market-oriented financing structures.

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Journal Publications



  • "How leverage ceilings helped Canada avoid the crisis,"
    (with Étienne Bordeleau and Allan Crawford). The Banker: How to run a bank 2011. March 2011.