Christopher Graham

Principal Economist


Principal Economist
Financial Stability
Regulatory Policy

Bank of Canada
234 Wellington Street
Ottawa, ON, K1A 0G9


November 17, 2016

Recent Changes to the Bank of Canada’s Emergency Lending Assistance Policy

Emergency Lending Assistance (ELA) is a discretionary last-resort collateralized loan or ad-vance by the Bank of Canada to eligible financial institutions (FIs) and financial market infrastructures (FMIs) facing serious liquidity problems. In December 2015, the Bank revised its ELA policy to (i) replace the requirement for an FI’s solvency with the requirement for a credible recovery and resolution framework; (ii) include mortgages as eligible collateral; and (iii) clarify both the eligibility requirements for FMIs and provincially regulated deposit-taking FIs.

The Impact of Liquidity on Bank Profitability

Staff Working Paper 2010-38 Étienne Bordeleau, Christopher Graham
The recent crisis has underlined the importance of sound bank liquidity management. In response, regulators are devising new liquidity standards with the aim of making the financial system more stable and resilient. In this paper, the authors analyse the impact of liquid asset holdings on bank profitability for a sample of large U.S. and Canadian banks.

Regulatory Constraints on Bank Leverage: Issues and Lessons from the Canadian Experience

Staff Discussion Paper 2009-15 Étienne Bordeleau, Allan Crawford, Christopher Graham
The Basel capital framework plays an important role in risk management by linking a bank's minimum capital requirements to the riskiness of its assets. Nevertheless, the risk estimates underlying these calculations may be imperfect, and it appears that a cyclical bias in measures of risk-adjusted capital contributed to procyclical increases in global leverage prior to the recent financial crisis.

Corporate Balance Sheets in Developed Economies: Implications for Investment

Staff Working Paper 2007-24 Denise Côté, Christopher Graham
In this paper, the authors examine the aggregate national balance-sheets of non-financial corporations in Australia and the G7 countries with a view to assessing both their financial structure and their financial position. More importantly, the authors investigate whether the financial position of non-financial corporations (i.e., debt-to-equity ratio) is material to the economy's investment prospects and whether the importance of this channel differs depending on the structure of corporate financing i.e., bank-based or market-oriented financing structures.

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Other publications

  • "How leverage ceilings helped Canada avoid the crisis,"
    (with Étienne Bordeleau and Allan Crawford). The Banker: How to run a bank 2011. March 2011.


  • Master of Arts in Economics, Carleton University (2001)
  • Bachelor of Arts in Economics (Honours), Wilfrid Laurier University (1998)

Research Interests

  • financial stability
  • monetary theory and policy
  • international economics
  • macroeconomics

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