Gitanjali Kumar



International Economic Analysis
Global Issues Division

Bank of Canada
234 Wellington Street
Ottawa, ON, K1A 0G9


December 15, 2016

Monitoring Shadow Banking in Canada: A Hybrid Approach

In Monitoring Shadow Banking in Canada: A Hybrid Approach, Bo Young Chang, Michael Januska, Gitanjali Kumar and André Usche discuss how lending that occurs outside the traditional banking system provides benefits to the economy but must be monitored carefully for potential financial sector vulnerabilities. They describe how the Bank defines and measures shadow banking and how it assesses vulnerabilities in the sector, using an approach that examines both markets and entities.

June 11, 2015

Assessing Vulnerabilities in the Canadian Financial System

The authors present the four common cyclical vulnerabilities that appear in financial systems, providing examples of qualitative and quantitative indicators used to monitor these vulnerabilities across different sectors. They also discuss other inputs to the vulnerability assessment and to the internal process used at the Bank of Canada for identifying, evaluating and communicating vulnerabilities and risks, and highlight some of the key challenges in assessing financial system vulnerabilities and risks.
Content Type(s): Publications, Financial System Review Article Topic(s): Financial stability JEL Code(s): G, G0, G01, G1, G10, G2, G20

High-Frequency Real Economic Activity Indicator for Canada

Staff Working Paper 2013-42 Gitanjali Kumar
I construct a weekly measure of real economic activity in Canada. Based on the work of Aruoba et al. (2009), the indicator is extracted as an unobserved component underlying the co-movement of four monthly observed real macroeconomic variables - employment, manufacturing sales, retail sales and GDP.

See More


Journal Articles

Other Research

  • “Re-evaluating the impact of the Reagan tax cuts”, 2010
  • “News shocks and international business cycles”, 2010


  • Ph.D. Economics, University of California Los Angeles, 2011
  • M.Sc. Economics, London School of Economics, 2006

Research Interests

  • Macroeconomics
  • Macroeconomic policy
  • International economics
  • Econometrics

Follow the Bank