The authors review recent developments in retail payments in Canada and elsewhere, with a focus on e-money products, and assess their potential public policy implications. In particular, they study how these developments will affect the demand for bank notes, and the central bank’s balance sheet and its seigniorage revenue, which as a result might affect the central bank’s ability to implement and conduct monetary policy and to promote financial stability. Other public policy issues, such as safety and efficiency, and user protection as well as legal, security and law enforcement, are also considered. While the demise of cash is not imminent, it is important for the central bank to continue to evaluate its potential roles with regard to e-money.